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Luthnaek is a constructed language made in 2015 by Ludvig Lind. It sounds much like Icelandic and would be useful in fantasy movies and books as a fictional language.

Grammar and phonology Edit

Alphabet: (Uthgedkhan) Edit

A [ɑ]| B [b]| D [d̪]| E [e]| F [f]| G [ɡ]| H [h]| I [i]| J [j]| K [k]| L [l]/[ɽ] | M [m]| N [n]| O [u]|P [p]| R [r]| S [s]| T [t̪]| U [u]/[ɵ]| V [v]| W [v]| Y [y]| Z [s]| Å [o]| Ä [ɛ]| Ö [ɶ]| Th [θ] |Dh[ð]| Sj [ɧ]/[x]|Tj [ʃ] |Rs [ʂ]

The shorter form of each vowel is not represented here, only the U because it's necessary, but the rest are in the alphabet nonetheless.

A is pronounced as the Finnish A or “ja” in German.

H is sometimes a silent letter.

J is pronounced as a diphthong Y.

L is pronounced lightly as in French or Swedish, but sometimes also deeply such as in northern Swedish if it's followed by a consonant.

W is pronounced as a V.

Z is pronounced the same as an S, and is usually used for grammatical or phonetic clarification.

Y works only as a vowel and not a diphthong, is pronounced as in Swedish.

Th is pronounced as in English's “the” or “thing”.

Dh is pronounced as in English's “The”.

Sj is sronounced as in Swedish's “skit”, sometimes German's “nacht”.

Tj is pronounced as “shit”.

Rs is a retroflex Tj.

Accents show, if necessary, if a vowel should be long or short, instead of using double consonants such as in English. Example: A belly-button = Yr nuvel. A short-story = Yri nuvèl. In the first word it's the first vowel that is stressed while both vowels are short in the other word with the stress on the second vowel. An accent that points to the right means that that vowel is long. Example: Because/since = Atterzé. (Long, French-like E at the end.)

Introduction to the grammar : (Begùnan thu akhuthjalegan) Edit

Luthnaek has two genders: living and dead gender. I.e. things that live (ex. a dog) belong to living gender and things that are dead (ex. house) belong to dead gender. If a living gender should die (ex. a dead pig) one should add “en” at the end of the word in order to show that it's dead. It makes it so that one often doesn't need to add the adjective “dead” (öurd) to the sentence. Adjectives usually end with G or N in Luthnaek, and the reason “öurd” doesn't is because the noun already indicates whether or not it's dead.

Nouns: (Thaeguthka) Edit

In definitive form you add the prefix “akh” to the noun. Example: A dog = yr lethga. The dog = akhlethga.

In spoken language you don't hear any difference between subject and object form on the words, but if you want you can add an apostrophe at the end of the noun to show. Example: A sheep is good = yr garthve oe kjahg. A wolf maims a sheep = yr lurthga sjrurnha yr garthve'.

In possessive form you add a Z at the end of the word. It shall be before the apostrophe if it's in object form. If the following noun is in plural you should add “yr” after the Z. Example: The boy's house = Akhladgz ryuth. The boy's friends = Akhladgzyr fryrdka.

In plural you should add “ka” at the end of the noun, it should be before the possessive Z and the apostrophe if there. Example: The girls' food = Akhladgakaz frysth.

If you want to turn a verb into a noun you take its standard form and add “an” at the end of the word. Example: To kill a killing = Ky öurn yri öurnan'.

If you want to make a word for a profession you add “or” at the end of the word. Example: A lumberjack = Yr fresthsjapdor.

If you want to turn a noun into a verb you add “zer” at the end of the word, after that the regular verb rules apply, with an E as present tense, which will be mentioned in the next paragraph. Example: To organise = Ky themlanzer.

Verbs: (Rsapnyluthka) Edit

In infinitive tense you don't add any suffix. In singular present tense you add a vowel, it varies which depending on the word. Example: To eat = Ky fryth. I eat = Y frythi.

Verbs are conjugated after plural, but not after gender. Then you should add a K at the end of the word. Example: The bear runs = Akhlueorn rurthu. The bears run = Akhlueorndka rurthuk. A good way of remembering this is to note that the noun's plural is “ka” and the verb's plural is K, both have a K involved.

In past tense you add “the” to the end of the verb. Example: The girl played = Akhladgarejanthe. When a word already ends with “the” or T you only add the E or “he”. Example: The girl ate = Akhladga frythe. To eat = Ky fryth.

In present perfect tense you add “tha” to the end of the word. Example: The girl has played =Akhladga rejantha. The same rules as before apply when a verb ends with “th” or T.

In past perfect tense you add “du” at the end of the word. Example: The girl had eaten =Akhladga frythdu.

In future tense you add an “å” at the end of the word if it's a definitive future tense, if it's a unsure future tense you add an “i”. Example: I will sleep = Y nuegthå. I will fall asleep [if...] = Y nyelthi [im..].

In future perfect tense you put I as a word before the present perfect tense. Example: I will have eaten [if...] = Y i frytha [im..].

In conditional tense you use the usual conjugation after the Å. Example: I would have eaten = Y frythåtha.

In past tense plural you add a K after the tense conjugation. Exempel: We killed him = Ä muernthek artn.

In future subjunctive you add “u” at the beginning of the word. Example: If I were... = Im yuoe...

In imperative mood you add “sjy” at the end of the verb. Example: The gods be with you =Akhgudka oesjy wal tve.

In present continuous tense you add “tha” to the beginning of the word, only in present tense, though. Example: I am eating = Y thafrythi.

In imperative you add the present tense vowel and an L at the end of the word. Example: Eat! = Frythil!

In passive form you add an S at the end of the verb. Example: The food was eaten by me =Akhfrysth frythes årt igh.

The verb “to be”-'s tenses:

To be = Ky oar. Is = Oe. Was = Oerth. Has been = Oerd. Had been = Oerdu. Will be = Oerå.

Will be [if] = Oeri. Being = Oerakth/Oerarkth.

Plural: To be = Ky oar. They are = Nuth oer. They were = Nuth oerthe. The have been =Nuth oertha.They had been = Nuth oerduk. De ska vara = Nuth oeråk. De kommer att vara =Nuth oerja. Varande = Oeraktha/Oerarktha.

If you want to make a verb into an adjective you add “ak/ark pl. aka/arka” if it's past participle, and “akth/arkth pl. aktha/arktha” if it's present participle. You add it after the verb's standard form. Example: A believing man = Yr belirlakth larthg. A newly built house = Yri nelnvildark ryuth.

Adjectives: (Thaljurduthka) Edit

Adjectives are conjugated after both gender and plural. A living gender noun usually conjugates the adjective with a G suffix; the dead nouns do it with an N. Example: The boy is big = Akhlagd oe grythg. The house is big = Akhryuth oe grythn. If an adjective ends with the same letter as the suffix letter you don't add anything.

In plural form you add an A after the gender mark. Example: The boys are big = Akhlagdka oer grythga. The houses are big = Akhryuthka oer grythna.

If both dead and living gender nouns are mentioned the living gender has priority. Example: The dog and the house are big = Akhlethga eth akhryuth oer grythga.

In definitive form you add an E after the gender mark, if it's already plural you don't conjugate the verb after definiteness. Example: The funny man = Agh skrathge akhlarth.

The articles are, when in singular form, “agh” or “anh” as living and dead gender in the same order, and “agha” or “anha” in plural form. Example: The big houses = Anha grythnaakhryuthka.

In comparative and superlative form the suffixes are “-rl”and“-thExample: Good, better, best = Kjahn/kjahg, kjahrl, kjahth. In definitive form you add an E to the superlative asjective, as on standard, definite adjectives. If the adjective already ands with “-rl” or “-th” you add an E between the end of the adjective and the suffix. Example: The fastest horse =Agh rapilthe akhsjav.

Luthnaek also has negative comparation which are “-älysj” and “-arlyth”. There are therefore not many negative opposites of adjectives, just the prefix U for opposites that aren't comparation. Example: Not nice, less nice, the least nice = Uhjuvyln, hjuvylnälysj, hjuvylnarlyth.

If you want to turn a noun into an adjective you add “yj/yjn pl. yja/yjna” at the end of the word. If the word already ends with a Y you only add the J and eventual conjugations. Example: Rainy = Rejnyj.

If you want to turn an adjective into a noun you add “dhom” at the end of the adjective without the gender mark.

Adverbs: (Thaljurdrsapnylka) Edit

On adverbs you add “sj” at the end of the verb. Example: The man runs fast = Akhlarth rurthu rapilsj.

Pronouns: (Fornaemuthka) Edit

Svenska: Subjekt: Objekt: Possessiv: Självständig possessiv:
I Y Igh Ymg/Ymn pl. Ymga/Ymna Ymnz pl. Ymnzå
You (Singular) Tve Thru Dig/Din pl. Diga/Dina Tvez pl. Tveza
He Yrg Yrgeth Yrlg/Yrln pl. Yrlga/Yrlna Yrz pl. Yrzu
She Arn Art Arna/Arnan pl. Arnå/Arnån Egz pl. Egza
Gender-neutral pronoun Y'av Y'ev Yzg/Yzn pl. Yzga/Yzna Yl pl. Yla
It Seg/Sen Sejg/Sejn Sez/Segs pl. Seza/Sega Su/Saz pl. Sua
They Nuth Nuthra Nuthga/Nun pl. Nuthgä/Nuthnö Nuthz pl. Nuthza
We Ä Ägh Ägtheg/Ägn pl. Ägthega/Ägna Älnz pl. Älnza
You (Plural) Ulr Ulra Ulrag/Ulran pl. Ulragu/Ulrana Ulz pl. Ulzy
One Ra Ren Ral/Raln pl. Rala/Ralna Renz pl. Renza
Zigh Zimg/Zimn pl. Zimga/Zimna Zighz pl. Zas

Names: (Naemka) Edit

If you want to put emphasis, or when someone screams, shouts or exclaims a name you should add “ath” at the end of the name. Example: Ludwig, where are you?! = Luethveigath, é znal oe tve?!

If the name already ends with “ath” (with other vowel too) you should add an R between the Th and the vowel. Example: Goliath! = Goliarth!

Counting words: (Hysjnuthka) Edit

In ordinal numbers you should add “yth” at the end of the standard number. Example: First, second, third = Ónyth, klöyth, thrakyth.

In Luthnaek you don't usually tell the time exactly, you just say that it's noon, evening, midnight, etc. But to be more precise you say how many hours of sunlight there's left, if you live far up north or south it will change over the year. If it's night you say how many hours of darkness there's left. On international or scientific occasions where you need to be understandable to many people or you need to be more accurate you simply say the numbers, like on a digital watch. Example: It's twelve o'clock in the winter = Akhthuesj oe thrak sjurka eth ajn thtudka yrzej. The time's around noon = Akhthuesj oe midthasj. The time is 12.00 [exactly] = Akhthuesj oe döe-ajn-ajn.

Conjunctions: (Vintheuthka) Edit

There's nothing special to say about conjunctions.

Interjections: (Tjyovtuthka) Edit

When describing screams and moans you should add an H at the end of the interjection. Example: Ah! Ajh! Åh…

Miscellaneous words: (Miksjelna uthka) Edit

If you want to ask a question you add “É” to the beginning of the sentence. Example: How are you? = É znak löura tve?

If you want to speak with good manners you add “Yrej” to the beginning of the sentence and speak slightly more slowly. You put the good-manner word before the question word. Example: Could I get a napkin? = Yerj é trartåthe y pörth yri nafsji?

Tables Edit

Standard nouns: (Thaeguthka) Edit

Standard form Definitive form Plural Possessive form Adjective form Verb form
Lethga Akhlethga Lethgaka Lethgaz Lethgaisj Ky lethgazer (e)

Days: (Tjrogthasjka) Edit

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Idunzthasj Vidarzthasj Odenzthasj Thorzthasj Frejzthasj Heimzthasj Njordzthasj

Months: (Monethka) Edit

January Olsmön
February Luethmön
Mars Spaenmön
April Hildhurmön
May Virkorzmön
June Kinugzmön
July Thorzmön
August Aughumön
September Felmön
October Oktòbria
November Helhelgkamön
December Julemön

Seasons: (Uitagka) Edit

Spring Spaen
Summer Hythuesj
Autumn Fel
Winter Wintra

Present vocabulary Edit

Couldn't fit the whole list on here, here's a link: Edit

Latest activityEdit

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